Lukacs identified that any political movement capable of bringing Bolshevism to the West would have to be, in his words,
it would have to
the religious power
which is capable of filling
the entire soul;
a power that characterized primitive Christianity."
However, Lukacs suggested, such a
political movement could only succeed when the individual believes that his or her actions are determined by
"not a personal destiny, but the destiny of the community"
in a world
"that has been abandoned by God."
Bolshevism worked in Russia because that nation was dominated by a peculiar gnostic form of Christianty typified by the writings of Fyodor Dostoevsky.
"The model for the new man is Alyosha Karamazov,"
said Lukacs, referring to the Dostoevsky character who willingly
gave over his personal identity
to a holy man, and thus ceased to be
"unique, pure, and therefore abstract."
This abandonment of the soul's uniqueness also solves the problem of
"the diabolic forces lurking in all violence"
which must be unleashed in order to create a revolution. In this context, Lukacs cited the Grand Inquisitor section of Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, noting that the Inquisitor who is interrogating Jesus, has resolved the issue of good and evil: once man has understood his alienation from God, then any act in the service of the
"destiny of the community"
such an act can be
"neither crime nor madness…. For crime and madness are objectifications of transcendental homelessness."
According to an eyewitness, during meetings of the Hungarian Soviet leadership in 1919 to draw up lists for the firing squad, Lukacs would often quote the Grand Inquisitor:
"And we who, for their happiness, have taken their sins upon ourselves, we stand before you and say, 'Judge us if you can and if you dare.'"
The New Dark Age:
The Frankfurt School and ‘Political Correctness’
Fidelio Vol 1, No 1, 1992