rightly sees all the manifestations of the East — he mentions Turkey, Persia and Hindustan — as having a common basis, namely the
absence of private landed property.
This is the real clef, even to the eastern heaven.
F. Bernier. «Voyages contenant la description des etats du Grand Mogol, de l'Indoustan, du Royaume de Cachemire, etc.». Tomes I—II, Paris, 1830.
It can, by the by, be shown that 1. in the case of all eastern tribes there has been, since the dawn of history, a general relationship between the
of one section and the continued nomadism of the others. 2. In Mohammed’s time the trade route from Europe to Asia underwent considerable modification, and the cities of Arabia, which had had a large share of the trade with India, etc., suffered a commercial decline — a fact which at all events contributed to the process. 3. So far as religion is concerned, the question may be reduced to a general and hence easily answerable one: Why does the history of the East appear as a history of religions?