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Berdyaev. End of history Category: History Bulgakov. End of history

History
End of history
According to Francis Fukuyama

What drives the whole historical process

The propensity to invest the self with a certain value, and to demand recognition for that value is like an innate human sense of justice.

The desire for recognition, and the emotions of anger, shame, and pride, are parts of the human personality critical to political life.

The propensity to invest the self with a certain value, and to demand recognition for that value, is what in today’s popular language we would call «self-esteem». … It is like an innate human sense of justice. People believe that they have a certain worth, and when other people treat them as though they are worth less than that, they experience the emotion of anger. Conversely, when people fail to live up to their own sense of worth, they feel shame, and when they are evaluated correctly in proportion to their worth, they feel pride. The desire for recognition, and the accompanying emotions of anger, shame, and pride, are parts of the human personality critical to political life. According to Hegel, they are what drives the whole historical process.

The logic of modern natural science would seem to dictate a universal evolution in the direction of capitalism.

Technology makes possible the limitless accumulation of wealth, and thus the satisfaction of an ever-expanding set of human desires.

Technology confers decisive military advantages on those countries that possess it.

The unfolding of modern natural science has had a uniform effect on all societies that have experienced it, for two reasons. In the first place, technology confers decisive military advantages on those countries that possess it, and given the continuing possibility of war in the international system of states, no state that values its independence can ignore the need for defensive modernization. Second, modern natural science establishes a uniform horizon of economic production possibilities. Technology makes possible the limitless accumulation of wealth, and thus the satisfaction of an ever-expanding set of human desires. This process guarantees an increasing homogenization of all human societies, regardless of their historical origins or cultural inheritances. All countries undergoing economic modernization must increasingly resemble one another: they must unify nationally on the basis of a centralized state, urbanize, replace traditional forms of social organization like tribe, sect, and family with economically rational ones based on function and efficiency, and provide for the universal education of their citizens. Such societies have become increasingly linked with one another through global markets and the spread of a universal consumer culture. Moreover, the logic of modern natural science would seem to dictate a universal evolution in the direction of capitalism.

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